The Nuraghe Abbauddi
By Giuseppe Pes
Abbauddi is a site particularly rich in elements of material culture that testifies the presence of the man in the territory from the Neolitic to the nuragic age and up to our days.
It is visible on the left side of the road 129 that connects Scano Montiferro to Macomer in direction of Macomer.
The site of Abbauddi includes at the actual state a small necropolis composed of two small domus de janas, the homonym nuraghe, around which it is developed the village and a cave for the extraction of very big blocks of sandstone rock(0,50 x 1,20 mts.).
The nuraghe Abbauddi it is situated on the summit of a spur of sandstone rock from which it dominates the underlying valley crossed by the river Semus, tributary of the river Mannu at the altitude of about 425 meters on the sea level; the whole surrounding territory is watched over by a series of nuraghis built according to the principle of the mutual visibility. We find at northeast the near nuraghe Santa Barbara, settled to control the river Cherchelighes, the nuraghe Sul¨ at southeast (still active in the medioeval age, as it is shown by the archaeological evidences that there lie), on the south side the nuraghe Padra and on the northwestern side the nuraghe SalÓggioro.
The Nuraghe Abbauddi
It is a single tower nuraghe, built with big outlined blocks and prepared in regular rows. The entry to the monument, about 2,20 mts. high, it is turned to the south and it culminates with a lintel of big dimensions. Once gone beyond the threshold we get in a tall corridor (around 5 mts) of ogival section, in which a big monolite inserted in the masonry to half height acts from lintel in the inside room.
To the left in the corridor of entry there is the usual niche, and to the right we find the entrance for the staircase of passage, still clear of from the collapses that usually interest this kind of monuments, and that it conducts to the summit of the nuraghe, from which it is possible to see the other nuraghis of the zone. Some of the stairs are ruined from the collapse that has interested the top part of the nuraghe but they are still functional.
The room has a diameter of 4 mts. and a height of 8,50 mts.; it is intact and it miss only the last rows of stones that closed the tholos, that were replaced by the cement in recent times. We find again in the room the characteristics three niches asymmetrically prepared. The residual height of the tower is of 9 mts. about.
In south direction in comparison to the nuraghe and frontally to the entry it is possible to notice the funds of the nuragic huts that composed the village. Of these it is visible the clog of stones at circular plant that served as base to the wooden coverages and straminee. From the leftover we can draw only the diameter that the huts had to have in origin, and that it wanders around the 5-6 mts.
In proximity of the nuraghe in northeast position in comparison to this last it is present a rock that we could define “sacrificial” altar; it brings in fact in the superior part a basin of about 0,20 mts. of diameter for 0,10 of height, with a hole side drainer, that postpones to the use of animal sacrifices, that finds comparisons in the rest of the island and in the same territory of Scano Montiferro.
In the southeast side is also present a cave of bolcks in sandstone used for the building of the nuraghe; we find again in fact the solcatures and the signs left by the wedges during the phases of extraction of that blocks.
The necropolis of Abbauddi is composed from two domus de janas of small dimensions, called in local language "sos Forrighesos" (fairy houses) from the inhabitants of Scano(P. LUTZU, 1922, p. 56).
The domus de janas is about twenty meters northeast from the homonym nuraghe and is dug on a wall of sandstone rock. It is composed of an anticell and a cell almost full of grownd. The anticell is probably deprived of the anterior part. The inside cell has an oval plant and the ceiling at “oven” shape and there are visible in the walls the signs of the excavation with lithic woodpeckers.
The other domus, denominated Abbauddi II, is situated at about ten meters southeast of the homonym nuraghe. It is monocellular, partially full of ground and introduces a porthole of rectangular entry with the rounded off superior angles. The external fašade of the domus is partly corroded, but are slightly noticed still the traces of the frame that it circumscribes the porthole. Internally the cell is also of circular form with oven ceiling.
The site of Abbauddi begins its life in the neolitic age, as the small ipogeis that compose the necropolis testify, but of which we have not precise data elements; both the domuses in fact resulted deprived of cultural material already at the times of the investigation of the prof. Pietro Pes(P. PES, 1953-54, p. 60).
The man's presence in nuragic age it is however testified from the tower, from the evolved constructive technique, from the presence of the staircase of passage and the tholos with the projected walls, makes to think that the building has presumably happened during the age of the recent bronze among 1300 and the 1150 b.C.
The fertility of the region, assured by the southwest river Semus and from the northeast river Cherchelighes, has allowed besides the permanence of the man up to our days, and the nuraghe has had during the time a certain maintenance, from refuge for the barn livestock in recent times. So also the presence of the huts testifies the presence of an inhabited area, probably only in seasonal way, as it happens today still in the shelters near the various sanctuaries of Sardinia (shelters as in the near church of S. Barbara). Abbauddi probably lived at the same time with the near Sul¨ and with the other present nuraghis in the zone.
[P. Lutzu, Il Montiferro, appunti storici, con pi¨ ampie notizie sul comune di Scano, Oristano, Tip. Pagani, 1922
P. Pes, Saggio di catalogo archeologico sul foglio 206 della Carta d’Italia, Quadrante IV, Tav. SE-SO, tesi di laurea, anno accademico 1953-54, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Cagliari
M. Sequi, Nuraghi, Manuale per conoscere 90 grandi torri megalitiche della Sardegna, Robbiate(Como), Multigrafica, 1985